The Southern Ocean also known by the names the Great Southern Ocean, Antarctic Ocean, South Polar Ocean and Austral Ocean comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean. It is the fourth largest of the five oceans.
This ocean zone is cold in northward flowing waters from the Antarctic mix with warmer subantarctic waters.
Due to increase in solar ultraviolet radiation resulting from the Antarctic ozone hole has reduced marine primary productivity by as much as 15% and has started damaging the DNA of some fish.
Icebergs can occur at any time of year throughout the ocean. Some may have drafts up to several hundred also pose problems for ships.